Fluoride: Any of a number of naturally occurring compounds. From the element Fluorine. In North America Fluoride has been added to the drinking water in an effort to reduce tooth decay. This has become somewhat controversial due to disagreements about side effects and long term effects.
Gingivitis: This is an inflammation of the gums (gum disease).It comes from bacteria, debris, food impaction etc. Gingivitis can lead to pyorrhea.
Halitosis: Basically it is bad breath. Usually a result of gum disease but may include other causes.
Orthodontics: This field of Dentistry focuses on preventing and correcting irregularities (malocclusions) . Typically done with dental braces and dental retainers.
Periodontal: Refers to the tissues and structures around the teeth. Generally this area is concerned with gum diseases that can then lead to tooth loss.
Prosthetic Dentistry: The word prosthesis is defined as an artificial device used to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye etc.
In prosthetic dentistry there are several subcategories:
Crowns- Like a cap that covers the top of the tooth and down the sides to hold it all together.
Bridges - these fill the gap for one or more teeth that are missing and are anchored to one or more adjacent teeth.
Dentures - Partial or whole this is a removable appliance with plastic or porcelain teeth.
Implants - Titanium screw surgically implanted into the jaw bone.
Pyorrhea: A more extreme form of gum disease that includes teeth loosening, bleeding gums and bone being resorbed (dissolved).
Root Canal: This is a dental treatment that involves removing diseased tissue from the tooth root and replacing it with an inert material.
Teething: This refers to the normal process children go through as the teeth break through the gum for the first time. Also known as eruption or cutting.